According to the 6 February 1922 resolution of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, Cheka and some of its local bodies were abolished and the State Political Department (SPD) was established on its basis. In Azerbaijan, a decision was made at a meeting of the Board of the Central Executive Committee on 7 August 1926 to replace Azerbaijani Cheka with the SPD.
The main task of the SPD was to secure the successful completion of the policy of collectivization pursued by the Bolshevik government. However, the resistance of national forces against the policy of collectivization intensified even more in 1928-29. Analyzing the situation in the country, the USSR Central Executive Committee and the Council of People's Commissars criticized the shortcomings in the law enforcement agencies and noted the need for certain structural changes. In order to militarize the Azerbaijani police, the issue of abolishing the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs (PCIA) was brought to the agenda of the Azerbaijan Central Executive Committee and the Council of People's Commissars.
On 23 March 1930, the Azerbaijan Central Executive Committee returned to this issue again and decided to abolish the PCIA as a separate commissariat. Some of its structural units - the police and the criminal investigations department - were merged with the SPD. However, after a short time, the PCIA was restored. Rather, the PCIA and SPD continued to operate as independent entities.